The steppe wolf (Canis lupus campestris), also known as the Caspian Sea wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to the Caspian steppes, the steppe regions of the Caucasus, the lower Volga region, southern Kazakhstan north to the middle of the Emba, and the steppe regions of the lower European part of the former Soviet Union. It may also occur in northern Afghanistan and Iran and occasionally the steppe regions of Romania and Hungary. The German name is Steppenwolf, whence the novel (1927) by the German author Hermann Hesse got its name. Studies have shown that this type of wolf is known to carry rabies. Due to its close proximity to domestic animals the need for a reliable vaccination is high. Rueness et al. (2014) showed that wolves in the Caucasus Mountains of the putative Caucasian subspecies, C. l. cubanensis, are not genetically distinct enough to be considered a subspecies, but may represent a local ecomorph of C. l. lupus. In Kazakhstan, villagers keep them as guard animals.
Also known as
This breed is also called Canis Lupus Campestris, Canis Lupus Cubanensis, Caspian Sea Wolf as well as Steppe Wolves.
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